There have been two trends since toward the end of 2016. The election of Donald Trump as president of the United States in large part due to his promises to boost economic growth and bring jobs back to the country and the turning of the corner by the Chinese economy returning it to consuming once again the world’s natural resources for its infrastructure and manufacturing sectors. Both of these trends have lifted the global economy out of deflationary pressures by reflating while investors in the financial markets are carefully watching their sustainability.
Trump’s election brought into focus the U.S. personal and corporate tax regimes, burdensome business regulations, deteriorating infrastructure and America’s trade policies that have proven to be detrimental to its economy. Promised reforms to all these determinants of the health of the U.S. economy greatly encouraged the equity markets on Wall Street which are eager for the expected reforms to become law. The president’s ongoing difficulty with members of his own political party in negotiating health care reform to end Obamacare is raising doubts about his ability to pass major economic reforms into law. If he cannot deliver, the markets could be deeply disappointed which could lead to a 10% drop or a correction in the major equity indices.
As China – the world’s largest economy by purchasing power parity (PPP) and the second largest in nominal terms – navigates the stabilization of its economy at a lower level of growth, transitioning, according to conventional wisdom, to a services and consumption-based economy from a manufacturing and exports-based model in its attempt to move up the economic value chain, a closer examination of China reveals that it wants to strengthen all four – manufacturing, services, consumption and exports. It is climbing up the manufacturing ladder to more innovative and higher-end manufacturing from simply being an assembler of imported components, building up the services sector, raising domestic consumption, and aggressively seeking and building markets for its exports with initiatives such as “One Belt, One Road.”
China intends to primarily import natural resources and food it is deficient in, make in China using Chinese producers for the Chinese market and for export. It is not a country that is open to foreign firms who wish to make in China for Chinese consumption even as it is beginning to expand the global footprint of its own corporations to produce for the consumption of others within their countries. When faced for some time – nearly four decades – with such globalization that takes advantage of the current global free trade regime not only by China, but by other aggressive exporters such as Germany and Japan, the United States cannot stand still without adjusting its global trade posture of playing the unsustainable consumer of global exports which is costing America jobs. This makes the sustainability of the Trump Trade all the more critical – an imperative. The president must succeed in passing economic reforms in America.
Any future success of the expected reforms in the United States will have a significant impact on the world. Lowering personal income taxes for the middle class while expanding the tax base with taxes on consumption (as India is doing) would economically strengthen the society. Cutting corporate taxes and facilitating repatriation of foreign profits of American firms at a low tax rate will increase business investment in the U.S. Streamlining regulations and making regulations smart will reduce the cost of compliance of firms, create a business-friendly environment and increase the ease of doing business while reducing the chances of events such as financial crises. Investing in infrastructure reduces business inefficiencies. Most importantly, a local, global and sustainable model of international trade which encourages local production by multinational corporations and local companies for sustainable local consumption while importing only natural resources and food items a country is deficient in will lead to global economic development by creating and developing local markets and political and economic institutions. All these reforms will be emulated by other countries once they become operational in the United States, pushing less open countries such as China and Japan to become reciprocally more open.
The American president may be lending his name to real estate projects around world but he may not have anticipated branding the global economy. The Trump Trade signals a paradigm shift in the structure of the world economy. It not happening will be a costly disappointment.